Modeling Of Finite State Machines

A designer should consider the different aspects of an FSM before attempting to write a model. A well-written model is essential for a functionality correct circuit that meets requirements in the most optimal manner. A badly written model may not meet either criteria. For this reason, it is important to fully understand FSMs and to be familiar with the different HDL modeling issues.
The Finite State Machine
A FSM is any circuit specifically designed to sequence through specific patterns of states in a predetermined sequential manner, and which conforms to the structure shown in fig below. A state is represented by the binary value held on the current register. The FSM structure consists of three parts and may, or may not, be reflected in the structure of them HDL code that is used to model it.

The State Table and State Diagram
A state diagram is a graphical representation of a state machine’s sequential operation and is often supported as a direct input to commercial synthesis tools from which synthesized circuits and HDL simulation models are generated. Whether to use a state diagram or HDL entry method is often a choice for the designer, provided the tools are available.
The structure of a state machine can take one of three forms, fig 11.3, and consists of a combinational "Next State Logic" block, a sequential "Current State Register" block, and an optional combinational "Output Logic " block. Output logic is not needed if the outputs only come direct from the state register flip-flops. The current state is not stored in flip-flops; latches would cause state oscillations when transparent. The next state and output logic blocks may contain additional sequential logic, inferred from within the body of the model, but is not considered part of the state machine. A state machine can only be in one state at any given time, and each active transition of the clock causes it to change from its current state to the next as defined by the next state logic.


A state machine with n state flip-flops has 2n possible binary numbers that can be used to represent states. Often, not all 2n numbers are needed, so the unused ones should be designed not to occur during normal operation. A state machine with five states, for example, requires a minimum of three flip-flops in which case there are (8 - 5 = 3) unused binary numbers.
module FSM1_BAD (Clock, SlowRAM, Read, Write);
input Clock, SlowRAM;
output Read, Write;
reg Read , Write;
always@(posedge Clock)
parameter ST_Read = 0, ST_Write = 1, Delay =2;
integer State;
case (State)
Read = 1;
Write = 0;
State = ST_Write;
Read = 0;
Write =1;
if(SlowRAM = = 1)
State =ST_Dealy ;
State = ST_Read ;
ST_Delay :
Read = 0;
Write =0;
State =ST_Read;
endcase // Because there is no default and therefore no new value for Read
// and Write, the 2 extra outputs flip-flops will also have
// feedback logic around them


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