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Showing posts from July, 2015

Characteristics of pressure vessels

Finite element method is a method of solving a problem by dividing the problem in to small problems by dividing or breaking up the geometric model into small pieces that are easier to analyze called discretization. In the case of the cylinder it might be broken up into small cubes or plates called elements. All of the elements make up the mesh. Each of these elements can be easily solved for by using simple equations for stress and strain. As the number of elements increases (increasing mesh size), their size decreases and the solution will grow more accurate. An excellent comparison to finite element analysis is the solution for area under the curve. If one is trying to find the area under the curve, breaking the curve up into a series of rectangles and adding their areas can approximate the solution. The no of rectangular divisions increase the accuracy. With the recent increases in the speed and processing power of computers, finite element analysis has become a practical

Inverter and Noise in Digital Circuits

Inverter – Voltage Transfer Characteristic Voltage Transfer Characteristic (VTC) for logic inverters have been standardized. VTC is the graph between Vout and VIN. On vertical axis, VOH and VOL correspond to output high and output low voltage levels respectively. On the horizontal axis, VIL is input low voltage and VIH is the input high voltage. Inverter – Voltage Transfer Characteristic As the input voltage is increased from 0V, VIL is the maximum input voltage that provides a high output voltage (logical 1 output). VIH is the minimum input voltage that provides a low output voltage (logical 0 output). VOH, VOL, VIL and VIH are referred to as the critical voltages of the VTC. VOH > VIH VOL < VIL Midpoint Voltage: Sometimes referred as Threshold voltage   (Vth). The voltage at which Vout = VIN on VTC is referred as Midpoint voltage. Midpoint voltage can be found graphically by superimposing (the unity slope) Vout = VIN and finding its intersect

Finite Elemental Analysis

Finite elemental analysis refers to a new method of analyzing various parameters of a given structure such as the structural stiffness, thermal behavior and fluid flow interaction. The method is one of approximation and is undergoing tremendous development, with the introduction of newer algorithms and improved computing capability. Today’s industrial scenario demands that any technical solution provided should be minimal in terms of both the product development time and the cost. This has given rise to newer methods of analysis which do not involve the production of a prototype. Owing to its sustained credibility, FEA has become one of the most widely used analysis tools. The first part of the assignment is concerned with a debate with regard to the merits and demerits of empirical methods as against the FEA method. This section deals with an overview of the finite elemental method procedure and its related merits. The second section deals with assessing the structural behav

Inverter – Voltage Transfer Characteristic

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Voltage Transfer Characteristic (VTC) for logic inverters have been standardized. VTC is the graph between Vout and VIN. On vertical axis, VOH and VOL correspond to output high and output low voltage levels respectively. On the horizontal axis, VIL is input low voltage and VIH is the input high voltage.       As the input voltage is increased from 0V, VIL is the maximum input voltage that provides a high output voltage (logical 1 output). VIH is the minimum input voltage that provides a low output voltage (logical 0 output). VOH, VOL, VIL and VIH are referred to as the   critical voltages of the VTC.       VOH > VIH VOL < VIL Midpoint Voltage: Sometimes referred as Threshold voltage (Vth). The voltage at which Vout = VIN on VTC is referred as Midpoint voltage. Midpoint voltage can be found graphically by superimposing (the unity slope) Vout = VIN and finding its intersection   with the VTC. Logic Swing and Transition Width Logic Swing